04 Oct 2021
Ear Training - Pitch Recognition
Ear Training is the development of the active and passive capability to relate to music aurally.
PUBLISHED: 02 Jan 2005 UPDATED: 04 Oct 2021 • LESSON CODE: ML-basic-03 •
Ear Training - Pitch Recognition
Ear Training is the development of the active and passive capability to relate to music aurally. This includes the ability to recognize melodic and harmonic intervals, chords, chords progressions, rhythm, melody and harmony.
Functional Pitch Recognition
Functional pitch recognition involves identifying the role of a single pitch in the context of a tonic. Once a tonic has been established, each subsequent pitch may be classified without direct reference to accompanying pitches. For example, once the tonic G has been established, listeners may recognize that the pitch D as the dominant or perfect fifth in the key of G. No reference to any other pitch is required to establish this fact. This is also called Relative Pitch and in most situations preferred than Perfect Pitch when one can instantly name a pitch isolated and not need of a reference tonic.
Many musicians use relative pitch to identify, understand, and appreciate the roles and meanings of pitches within a key. To this end, scale-degree numbers or Solmization can be used for this purpose.
Solmization a.k.a. solfège (do, re, mi, etc.) can be quite helpful. Using such systems, pitches with identical functions (the keynote or tonic, for example) are associated with identical labels (1 or do, for example).
Solmization / solfège The seven syllables normally used for this practice in English-speaking countries are: do, re, mi, fa, sol, la, and ti (with sharpened notes: di, ri, fi, si, li and flattened notes: te, le, se, me, ra).
Ear Training is the development of the active and passive capability to relate to music aurally. This includes the ability to recognize melodic and harmonic intervals, chords, chords progressions, rhythm, melody and harmony. This is a skill by which musicians learn to identify, solely by hearing, pitches, intervals, melody, chords, rhythms, and other basic elements of music. The application of this skill is analogous to taking dictation in written/spoken language. Ear training may be contrasted with sight-singing, which is analogous to reading aloud in language. Ear-training is typically a component of formal musical training.
Relative Pitch - The term relative pitch may denote:
- the distance of a musical note from a set point of reference, e.g. "three octaves above middle C"
- a musician's ability to identify the intervals between given tones, regardless of their relation to concert pitch (A = 440Hz)
- the skill used by singers to correctly sing a melody, following musical notation, by pitching each note in the melody according to its distance from the previous note. Alternatively, the same skill which allows someone to hear a melody for the first time and name the notes relative to some known starting pitch.
WidipediA Ear Training
Playing by Ear
Before talking about playing by ear, one needs to understand what is commonly called ear training. As the WikipediA definition for Ear Training mentioned, ear training has an active and passive roll.
Passive Ear Training
PASSIVE EAR TRAINING is the ability to recognize and name intervals, chords, chord progressions, melodic sequences, rhythm, etc... An example of passive ear training would be if someone played the first two notes of the song "Here Comes the Bride" and you can recognize them as an interval of a perfect fourth. You might not know the actual pitches, that would be perfect pitch, the ability to identify or re-create a given musical note without the benefit of an external reference.
- Unison: ( Do - Do* ) i.e., C then same C again
- Happy Birthday To You
- One Note Samba
- Minor Second: i.e., C to Db
- Theme from Jaws (movie)
- Isn't She Lovely (Stevie Wonder)
- Pink Panther Theme • Actually chromatic approach noted to a minor triad, based in the Tonic of the key. First two notes of the triad are approached chromatically ascending and the last one descending.
- Major Second: ( Do - Re ) i.e., C to D
- Frere Jacques
- Do A Dear
- Silent Night
- First two note of a major sacle.
- Minor Third: i.e., C to Eb
- Smoke on the Water
- Brahms' Lullaby
- First two notes of a Blues scale
- Georgia On My Mind
- Major Third: ( Do - Mi ) i.e., C to E
- Michael Row Your Boat Ashore
- When the Saints Go Marching In
- Kum By Ya
- Ob-la-di Ob-la-da (The Beatles)
- Have Yourself a Merry Little Christmas
- Perfect Fourth: ( Do - Fa ) i.e., C to F
- Here Comes the Bride
- The Look of Love
- Amazing Grace
- Auld Lang Syne
- Love Me Tender
Tritone, Augmented Fourth/Diminished Fifth
- Tritone (♯4 or ♭5): i.e., C to F#/Gb
- The Simp - sons
- Ma ri a, from West Side Story
- Perfect Fifth: ( Do - Sol ) i.e., C to G
- Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star
- My Favorite Things
- Theme from Star Wars
- Hey There Georgie Girl
- Can't Help Falling In Love
- Minor Sixth: i.e., C to Ab
- Black Orpheus
- Theme From Love Story
- Scott Joplin's The Entertainer (Main theme after the intro)
- In My Life (guitar intro)
- Major Sixth: ( Do - La ) i.e., C to 6
- My Bonnie Lies Over The Ocean
- the N B C theme
- I Heard the Bells
- Take the A Train
- Minor Seventh: i.e., C to Bb
- Theme from Star Trek
- Somewhere (from West Side Story)
- Major Seventh: ( Do - Ti (Si) ) i.e., C to B
- Theme from Fantasy Island
- Octave: ( Do - Do ) i.e., C to C`
- Blue Bossa
- Singing In The Rain
- Hi Ho Hi Ho
- Some where Over the Rainbow (then descends a minor second to the major seventh of the scale
- Let It Snow
- The Christmas Song
* Fixed do solfège
Fixed do solfège - In the fixed do system, accidentals do not affect the syllables used. For example, C, C♯, and C♭, as well as C double sharp and C double flat are all sung with the syllable "do", For more information, history and visit the Wikipedia page for Solfège
- Minor Second: i.e., C down to B
- Fur Elise
- Joy to the World (Major Scale Descending)
- Jingle Bell Rock
- Stella by Starlight
- Fur Elise
- Major Second:i.e., C down to Bb
- Three Blind Mice
- Mary Had a Little Lamb
- Satin Doll
- Three Blind Mice
- Minor Third: i.e., C down to A
- Beethoven's 5th (G G G Eb) Ludwig Van Beethoven's 5th Symphony in C Minor (Full)
- Camptown Races
- This Old Man
- Hey Jude
- Star Spangled Banner
- Major Third: i.e., C down to Ab
- Giant Steps • Descends a major seventh chord from the major seventh of the chord to the root of the chord. Basically a root inversion of the chord descending.
- Perfect Fourth: i.e., C down to G
- Old MacDonald
- Frere Jacques ("Ding Dang Dong...")
- When Johnny Comes Marching Home
- I've Been Working on the Railroad
- Tritone: i.e., C down to F#/Gb
- The Simp - sons
- Ma ri a, from West Side Story
- Perfect Fifth: i.e., C down to F
- It Don't Mean a Thing (Duke Ellington)
- Have You Meet Miss Jones
- Seven Steps to Heaven
- Flintstones Theme (Flint stones meet the ...)
- Minor Sixth: i.e., C down to Eb
- Love Story Theme
- Major Sixth: i.e., C down to Ab
- Body and Sole
- Major Seventh: i.e., C down to Db
- I love you (Cole Porter)
- Minor Seventh: i.e., C down to D
- Watermelon Man
- Octave: i.e., C` down to C
- Hi Ho Hi Ho
- Some where Over the Rainbow
- Crazy (2nd line "I'm crazy..."
- Willow Weep For Me
- Major Pentatonic:
- My Girl guitar lick
- I Saw Mommy Kissing Santa Claus
- Major Scale:
- Joy to the World
- Major 7th chord:
- Jingle, Jingle, Jingle The first four notes are a major seventh chord, the 1 3 5 7 of the major scale of key of the song.
Active Ear Training
ACTIVE EAR TRAINING is the ability to reproduce intervals, chords, chord progressions, melodic sequences, rhythm, etc... An example of active ear training would be to play the first two notes of the song "Here Comes the Bride" anywhere on your instrument or sing that interval (in tune).
NOTE: Getting your fingers and or voice to follow you ear is one of the harder things to do. This is technique and takes a lot of work. All, well worth the effort.
Where the Ear Fits In - (Ear, Hands, Mind)
The hands are the weakest link in the Ear to Hands to Mind combination that is used to play music (by ear) and the hands need to be trained to follow the ear. It is the hands training that takes the longest.
The ear can remember stuff after ONE time hearing it. The Mind two or three and the hands to develop the muscle memory take about a few hundred times. How else can we recognize melodies after hear it once?
When practicing you should be doing stuff to train the hands to follow the ear. That is the sequence for developing this connection:
Mind to Hands to Ear
The Mind tells the Hands what to play and the Ear listens. DON'T practice by ear. Have a plan and organization of the material you would like to cover.
Practicing your scales in intervals of 2nds, 3rds, 4ths, 5ths, 6ths, 7ths, etc... Some more common than other for melodies. Practice both ascending and descending. I would go with 2nds, 3rds, and 6ths first.
Ear to Hands to Mind
The Ear tells the Hands what play and you can involve the Mind if needed or wanted after the fact.
The hands will not do anything they have not done before.
So to be able to play by ear you either:
1) Hunt and Peck enough to train your fingers to follow the ear – or –
2) Have a plan to train the ear and hands to work together, thus making the hands to the ear connection quicker. Creating a plan is where a teacher can really help. And, if you've had bad experiences with teachers don't give up on them just try another teacher, good teachers are out there. Typically jazz musicians will be the best teachers in the playing by ear department. Remember playing by ear does not mean practicing by ear. Practicing and learning are different then performing.
Here is an example of learning a specific interval. The first two notes of "Here Comes the Bride" are a perfect fourth. Try putting any finger on any note of the ukulele and then play the second, "Here Comes..." correctly the first time. If you can't the fingers haven't been trained enough to "Play by Ear", to obey the hands for the particular sound of that interval. This is then where the mind comes in and intellectually knows where the interval of a perfect fourth is and trains the hands to follow the ear.
Same goes for chords, chord progressions, melodies, rhythms. The process starts with the mind telling hands what to do and the ear taking it all in.
End of Lesson - Thanks, Hope You Enjoyed It!
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Remembering Songs • Updated: 19 Mar 2019
Listening to songs and wanting to play the same songs on ukulele - that's what draws most people to the ukulele. That and it looks like a load of fun and easy too play - which it is. Then you need to actually remember the songs that you're learning so you can play them again. And, hopefully not have to read them off a sheet all the time.
Remembering a song is lot like remembering the directions for a road trip. There are the turn-by-turn directions, road maps, signs and landmarks that will get you to where you are going. Turn here, turn there, remember this and remember that landmark. With a songs it's the chords, the melody, style, the harmonic cells, the form, etc that are part of the song that you want to remember.
The Learning Process - The Mind, Hands and Ears • Updated: 22 Jan 2020
For music and learning an instrument like the ukulele or guitar, it's all about the making the connection between the Mind, the Hands and the Ear. When listening to music, we enjoy it at the tempo the composer or artist intended, in real time. Only the ear is involved in listening. This is passive listening and you're simply enjoying the music. This is what we do everyday and it's what draws us to want to learn a musical instrument.
Understanding Diatonic Intervals • Updated: 02 Oct 2021
An interval is the distance between two notes. An interval has a name and a type. Intervals can be played one note (melodic) or two notes (harmonic) at a time, ascending or descending.
Simple and Compound Intervals are taken from a major scale.
Chromatic Intervals are NOT taken from a major scale. They are derived from the diatonic intervals.
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Daily Practice Material for the Contemporary Ukulele
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Daily Practice Material for the Contemporary Ukulele Player is an organized collection of daily practice and reference material for the contemporary ukulele player. This material can be used to develop the vocabulary and knowledge necessary for single note playing.
Daily Practice Material for the Contemporary Musician
Updated: Sep 28, 2021
Daily Practice Material for the Contemporary Musician is an organized collection of daily practice and reference material for the contemporary ukulele player. This material can be used to develop the vocabulary and knowledge necessary for single note playing.
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